What is LPG?
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a clean and safe fuel that has a range of properties closest to petrol. It is a by-product of petrol refining and natural gas production. Under slight pressure, LPG turns into liquid form and can then be stored in tanks.
LPG is a naturally occurring by-product of natural gas extraction (60%) and crude oil refining (40%). It is therefore either used or it is wasted.It is a combination of propane and butane molecules, along with trace amounts of other compounds.
The key property of LPG is the fact that it is highly calorific gas, which easily condenses even at relatively low pressures and current temperatures. Thank to these properties it can be stored also in small tanks or cylinders.
Another key property of LPG is its easy vaporization and possibility of combustion in gaseous state, when it has even 3x greater calorific value than natural gas and at the same time belongs among most ecological fuels. Pure propane vaporizes at temperatures higher than -43°C, which in our conditions guarantee sufficient quantity of vapor for all appliances. In comparison, butane has essentially worse evaporative ability, and therefore is supplied mixed with propane.
Liquefied hydrocarbon gas is a colorless, easily evasive liquid with specific odor. It is inflammable and explosive, nontoxic; its vapors are even double as heavier as air. By liquefying it decreases its volume by ca. 260 times. It has different physic-chemical properties in gaseous and liquid phases.
|Density in liquid phase at 20°C||0,498 kg.l-1||0,578 kg.l-1|
|Density in gaseous phase at 15°C||2,019 kg.m-3||2,590 kg.m-3|
|Density in gaseous phase (air = 1)||1,562||2,091|
|Boiling point||- 42,6 °C||- 0,5 °C|
|Melting point||- 190,16 °C||- 134,96 °C|
|Gas volume, achieved by evaporation of|
1 kg liquid phase 0°C, 101,325 kPa
1 kg liquid phase 20°C, 101,325 kP
|Combustion heat (liquid phase)|
Combustion heat (gaseous phase)
|Calorific value (liquid phase)|
Calorific value (gaseous phase)
|Calorific value MJ/m3||35,90||93,15||123,36||123,91|
|Combustion heat MJ/m3||39,94||101,36||133,85||134,41|
|Calorific value MJ/kg||50,04||46,35||45,57||45,74|
|Combustion heat MJ/kg||55,66||50,43||49,45||49,62|
What are the benefits?
The main advantage of converting to LPG is its low price (less than half that of petrol). The government has reduced the duty on LPG (or Autogas) in recognition of its unique clean burning properties that significantly reduce vehicle emissions. Duty levels on LPG are fixed until 2011.
What are the cost savings?
LPG reaches the engine in a pure gas form, resulting in improved combustion and eliminating the problem of engine oil dilution by unburned petrol. The oil stays cleaner for longer. This increases engine life and can extend service intervals. Engines also run more smoothly and quietly than on petrol.
Think about these environmental savings too!
- A diesel engine produces about 20 times as much NOx as an LPG engine, thus having a huge impact on air quality.
- A diesel engine produces about 120 times as many ultra-fine particulates as an LPG engine. These nasty little particulates lodge in your lungs and cause respiratory problems that tend to build up over the years.
- A petrol engine produces around 20% more CO2 than an LPG engine.
Three really good environmental reasons for choosing LPG, in addition to the fact that LPG is cheaper than petrol and diesel when comparing the cost per mile for fuel.
|USES OF LPG:|
|The initial stage of switching from traditional fuels or kerosene to LPG in developing countries typically involves the use of a cylinder attached to a simple burner. As familiarity with LPG grows and incomes rise, the user may install a modern cooker inside the home, possibly with the gas supplied by rubber pipe from a cylinder placed outdoors or in a separate room. Later, hot water and/or a refrigeration system may be added. In remote rural communities, LPG can also be used to power electric generators, although diesel is generally a more economic option. Further, LPG can be used in conjunction with renewable technologies for decentralized power generation, to meet loads that may be beyond the capacity of the renewable system or as back-up fuel where intermittence may be a problem.|
Internationally, LPG is being consumed as a fuel in the following sectors:
Domestic (household) sector as cooking, heating and in nominal quantities as lighting fuel.
Commercial sector such as cooking fuel in hotels and restaurants.
Automotive sector as fuel for taxis, vans and private cars.
Industrial sector as cutting and heating fuel.
Agriculture sector for crop drying, etc.
Other industrial uses such as manufacture of petrochemicals.
What is LPG used for?
There are more than 1000 applications of LPG. It is used in commercial business, in industry, transportation, farming, power generation, cooking, heating and for recreational purposes. LPG is used throughout the home, as a gas to cook with, a source of fuel for central heating and hot water. LPG is also commonly used in the agricultural sector and as a lower emission automotive transportation fuel.
How is LPG transported?
LPG can be transported virtually anywhere, either in cylinders or bulk tank. It can be transported using sea, rail or road transport. LPG does not use piped networks, reducing vulnerability to supply disruption. Trucks transport butane and propane cylinders from the bottling plant to retailers, as well as to private and professional customers. Meanwhile, small bulk trucks distribute LPG from the storage centres to various consumers.
Why is LPG a responsible energy source?
LPG contributes to improvement of the wellbeing of whole communities. It has no hidden social impact.
On the contrary, for developing rural communities LPG can provide a first modern alternative to traditional cooking fuels (e.g. firewood, charcoal, dung), contributing to a better quality of life and importantly, liberating women and children from time spent collecting fuel, thus enabling them to pursue education or value-added economic activities within the community.
Furthermore, exposure to a mixture of particles and toxic chemicals, generated when wood or other biomass material is used for indoor cooking, is responsible for widespread sickness and greatly reduced life expectancy for many people living in poorer communities (1). With its intrinsically clean burning characteristics, LPG offers a practical avenue towards cleaning up the air we breathe.
LPG also helps to reduce Black Carbon and Particular Matter emissions which not only compromises both outdoor and indoor air quality but can cause serious health problems. According to the World Health Organization, air pollution with Particular Matter claims an average 8.6 months from the life of every person in the EU.
Autogas has a simple chemical composition and burns more cleanly than traditional fuels. Autogas has 50% less oxides of nitrogen than petrol and 20 times less than diesel. (Oxides of nitrogen are commonly related to air pollution and smog.) Autogas vehicles also produce 120 times less small particle emissions than deisel vehicles. (Small particles are related to health issues like heart and lung disease and asthma.)
Driving your vehicle on autogas reduces your carbon footprint and your contribution to global warming. In 2004 the European Emissions Testing Programme confirmed the environmental benefits and credentials of autogas vehicles. Test confirmed that Autogas vehicles produce 17% less carbon dioxide that petrol and 2% less than diesel.
Cost of fuel - The forecourt price of Autogas is approxumately half that of petrol and diesel. Whilst the miles per gallon when running on LPG is usually around 20% less than petrol, significant cost savings can be made - to see how much you can save go to our 'Savings Calculator'.
Can Diesel engines be converted to run on LPG?
1. To truly convert the engine by reducing its compression ratio and provide it with spark ignition.
2. To mix LPG with the existing Diesel fuel before induction (Fumigation, not Conversion)
Can I convert my own vehicle?
In a word, yes.
Filling carousel is intended for filling liquified petroleum gas (LPG) cylinders in large groups. It consist of a frame with running wheels, rails, a central column for LPG and air, and a driving unit the carousel frame around the central column. The speed of the carousel can be adapted to the various filling times and capacities. The dimension of the carousel is important to consider for the future filling capacity. The carousel frame chosen can be equipped with a number of filling scales covering the present demand and also for the future demand. Filling carousel can be provided with equipment for automatic introduction and automatic filling scales with ejection of cylinders.
Automatic inlet device
Automatic inlet device controls the transfer of LPG cylinders from the inlet portion of the conveyor system into the carousel. It is an integral part of an automated cylinder filling operation.Chain conveyor
The main purpose of the double chain conveyor is to carry the LPG cylinders to and from the filling carousel. It has a sturdy steel construction and is one of the most important components of an automated LPG filling operation. Good conveyor layout saves time, space and labor.
Facts & Figures
- There are more than 1000 applications of LPG
- LPG is the most widely used alternative automotive fuel in Europe
- LPG has been used to fuel the Olympic flame due to its safety, environmental and practical characteristics
- LPG was found to have higher efficiency than natural gas-fuelled distributed power generation which makes it ideal for rural homes and businesses
- LPG is a naturally occurring by-product of natural gas extraction (60%) and crude oil refining (40%) - therefore we either use it or it is wasted
- LPG produces less air pollutants than diesel, oil, wood or coal
- LPG emits about 20% less CO2 than heating oil and 50% less than coal.
- LPG's volume is 274 times smaller when in a liquid state
- LPG was among the two most efficient energy options across a wide variety of technology configurations
- LPG was consistently among the most efficient water heating options across the regions examined
- Over half of the world's population still relies on wood, crop waste, or even dried dung to provide the energy for cooking
- LPG is distributed through a network of 17,500 filling stations to fuel more than 4 million vehicles in Europe
- Autogas is today the most accepted alternative fuel in the automotive sector with more than 13 million vehicles operating worldwide
- An LPG furnace can heat air up to 25 degrees warmer than one powered by other fossil fuels
- In India, LPG emits 60% fewer GHGs than electric coil cook tops, 50% fewer emissions than some biomass stoves and 19% fewer GHGs than kerosene stoves
- LPG helps to reduce emissions of a typical house by 1.5 tonnes (around 25%) of CO2 per year
- Autogas yields 50% less carbon monoxide (CM), 40% less hydrocarbons (HC), 35% less nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 50% less ozone forming potential compared to gasoline
- LPG can be up to five times more efficient than traditional fuels, resulting in less energy wastage and better use of our planet's resources
- LPG is extremely versatile and portable. It can be transported using sea, rail or road transport. LPG is available in a wide variety of packaging and storage options and is available in even the remotest of areas
- LPG also helps to reduce Black Carbon (BC) emissions, which are the second biggest contributor of global warming and which can cause serious health problems
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